Reality Therapy is a psychotherapeutic approach where the therapist based on understanding that people are intrinsically motivated and that they control their own behaviour uses the process of self-evaluation to connect with a client through the difficulties that he/she presents which enables client to look at the difficulties from another perspective and discover better ways to achieve personal satisfaction. The Reality therapist’s viewpoint on human beings and their difficulties is known as Choice Theory.
Choice Theory is an understanding of human behaviour based on second order cybernetics. The human organism is a closed system. Every function of that system is purposeful and is motivated from within. The organism is equated with its behaviour which is an inseparable whole and consists of action, thinking, feeling and physiology. The purpose of human behaviour is establishing inner equilibrium and harmonising with the environment. This is possible because of the following features and abilities of the organism: Motives that drive the behaviour; abilities to monitor and compare information gathered from the environment with its internal motives; ability to harmonise by using the most prominent trait – its own creativity. These features of the system are described in detail for the purpose of psychotherapy using constructs of psychological needs, quality world and total behaviour.